Cardiac hypertrophy developed in trained athletes is difficult to distinguish from impaired cardiac function during a resting
The athletic heart will show enhanced performance during exercise
Beans and Gas
Beans are notorious gas producers. They contain high levels of sugars that
the human body cannot digest and when coupled with bacteria in the gut, they
produce large amounts of gas. Other gas producers include broccoli, cabbage,
onion, cucumbers, peanuts, eggs and raisins.
Fart Gas Composition
While on the subject, fart gas is mostly nitrogen with hydrogen, carbon
dioxide, methane and oxygen making up the balance. The smell comes from hydrogen
sulfide gas which makes up less than 1% of the total mix
All of the blood vessels in your body, including arteries, veins and
capillaries, are more than 60,000 miles long.
An adult heart pumps approximately 2,000 gallons of blood each day
The heart beats about 100,000 times each day An average human heart beats more than 2.5 billion times in 70
Blood is about 78 percent water.
Blood takes about 20 seconds to circulate throughout the entire vascular system
No one seems to know why people blush.
In 1972, a group of scientists
reported that you could cure the common cold by freezing the big toe.
number one cause of blindness in the United States is diabetes.
human heart weighs about ten ounces.
People who laugh a lot are much
healthier than those who don't. Dr. Lee Berk at the Loma Linda School of Public
Health in California found that laughing lowers levels of stress hormones, and
strengthens the immune system. Six-year-olds have it best - they laugh an
average of 300 times a day. Adults only laugh 15 to 100 times a
People who have a tough time handling the stress of money woes are
twice as likely to develop severe gum disease, a new study finds.
25% to 33% of the population sneeze when they are exposed to light.
the 206 bones in the average human adult's body, 106 are in the hands and feet.
(54 in the hands and 52 in the feet)
In 1815 French chemist Michael
Eugene Chevreul realized the first link between diabetes and sugar metabolism
when he discovered that the urine of a diabetic was identical to grape
Approximately 16 Canadians have their appendices removed, when not
required, every day.
Sumerians (from 5000 BC) thought that the liver made
blood and the heart was the center of thought.
Men have more blood than
women. Men have 1.5 gallons for men versus 0.875 gallons for women.
first Band-Aid Brand Adhesive Bandages were three inches wide and eighteen
inches long. You made your own bandage by cutting off as much as you
The human brain stops growing at the age of 18.
In 1977, a
13 year old child found a tooth growing out of his left foot.
to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 18 million courses of
antibiotics are prescribed for the common cold in the United States per year.
Research shows that colds are caused by viruses. 50 million unnecessary
antibiotics are prescribed for viral respiratory infections.
It takes an
interaction of 72 different muscles to produce human speech.
known heart medicine was discovered in an English garden. In 1799, physician
John Ferriar noted the effect of dried leaves of the common plant, digitalis
purpurea, on heart action. Still used in heart medications, digitalis slows the
pulse and increases the force of heart contractions and the amount of blood
pumped per heartbeat.
Blood is red only in the arteries after it has left
the heart and is full of oxygen. Blood is a purplish, blue color in the veins as
it returns to the heart, thanks to having picked up carbon dioxide and other
wastes from the body's cells. In fact, your blood is red throughout only half
your body. When cut, of course, the blood always appears red because it is
instantly exposed to oxygen outside the body.
Contrary to popular belief,
hemophiliacs do NOT bleed to death from minor cuts. This rare disease, which
affects only males (it is carried by females, but they don't exhibit symptoms),
involves an impairment in blood clotting—not an absolute inability to clot.
Hemophiliacs today may take clotting serums and often lead fairly normal
During his or her lifetime, the average human will grow 590 miles
The average Human bladder can hold 13 ounces of
You lose enough dead skin cells in your lifetime to fill eight
five-pound flour bags.
Your thumb is the same length as your
The storage capacity of human brain exceeds 4
The Mad Hatter in Alice in Wonderland was a symbolic
character for the hat makers in towns of the late 1800's. The large felt hats of
the day had supports made out of lead. The lead caused an organic form of
psychosis (brain damage) to develop in the hat makers causing them to be
Although your system cannot digest gum like other foods,
it won't be stuck inside of you forever. It comes out with other waste your body
The substance that human blood resembles most closely in terms
of chemical composition is sea water.
Some aspirins are marketed as “coated” to delay their absorption until they reach the intestine for individuals with sensitive stomachs.
Alcohol is also absorbed through the stomach. Hence, alcohol should not be consumed when a person has not eaten.
Eating food when drinking alcohol delays the speed at which the alcohol is absorbed.
DUODENAL GASTRIC ULCERS
Ulcers occur when the hydrochloric acid and digestive enzymes erode the layers of the stomach or duodenum. This is caused by either the excessive production of acid (which can be caused by stress) or the inadequate production of the alkaline mucus that protects the epithelial lining of the tract. Current research indicates that a bacterium Helicobacter pylori is associated with the development of stomach or peptic ulcers. Antibiotics are administered to treat these ulcers. In the past, antacids have been used to inhibit acid production by the parietal cells of the stomach.
TEAM OF spring 2009
Team of Summer 2009
How Many Licks Does It Really Take?
Engineering students at Purdue University and the University of Michigan used licking machines to get to the bottom of the eternal question: "How many licks does it take to get to the Tootsie Roll center of a Tootsie Pop?" Purdue's machine averaged 364 licks while Michigan averaged 411. However, these robot tongues may have been inefficient. Hungry humans took 252 licks at most in other Tootsie tests [source: Wired].
To understand the abnormal you have to know the normal.
"FAILURE IS NOT AN OPTION"
THERE IS MORE STUFF TO BE KNOWN THAN WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW
Hello Students of PGC - LAUREL-HOWARD
Class of 2009
In this site you will find all we talked about in Lab and more.
will be updated after each Lab and before each lectures, question will
be put on the site after each recitation for you to review.
Remember you will need to be ready before each lab and review after each lab.
– malignant tumor in children, probably of embryonic origin, good prog
– remnant of allantois, urine drainage from umbilicus
– chromaffin cell tumor, generally along migratory path of neural crest cells
Direct hernia: leaves abdominal cavity medial to
inferior epigastric vessels
hernia: leaves abdominal cavity lateral to inferior epigastric vessels
protrusion of abdominal viscera through femoral ring into femoral canal
puncture: needle into lumbar cistern between spinous processes L3/L4 or L4/L5
Pericardiocentesis: wide bore needle inserted through 5th or 6th
intercostal space near sternum. Careful
not to puncture internal thoracic artery
•We eat about 500kg of
food per year.
•We produce 1.7 litres
of saliva each day.
•In the mouth, food is
either cooled or warmed to a more suitable temperature.
•The oesophagus is
approximately 25cm long.
•Muscles contract in waves to move the food down the esophageus. This means that
food would get to a person's stomach, even if they were standing on their
•An adults stomach can
hold approximately 1.5 litres of material and produces about 2.5 litres of
gastric juice everyday.
•In an average person,
it takes 8 seconds for food to travel down the food pipe, 3-5 hours in
small intestine and 3-4 days in the large intestine.
•The human body takes
6 hours to digest a high fat meal and takes 2 hours for a carbohydrate
•Every day 11.5 litres
of digested food, liquids and digestive juices flow through the digestive
system, but only 100mls is lost in faeces.
•Most of us pass
somewhere between 200 and 2,000 ml of gas per day. These emissions are composed
of five gasses: nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2), hydrogen
(H2), and methane (CH4).
Internal Heart Tutorial and Self-Test to review basic anatomy of heart, chambers, valves etc...
Posterior Heart Tutorial and Self-Test to review basic anatomy of heart and vessels...
Quizzer 1 on basic EKG features including deflections and segments etc...
EKG Arrhythmia Tutorial to identify arrhythmias including VTAC, PVC, hyperkalemia etc...
Quizzer 2 on EKG arrhythmias such as heart blocks, PAC, digitalis effect etc...
CyberHeart Tutorial to experiment with cardiac function... (but try to avoid causing cardiac arrest!)
Sheep Heart Interactive tutorial with views of dissected sheep heart...
Histology anatomy video :http://www.bio alive.com/community/play.php?vid=200
American Heart Association Lots of information and links on heart disease...
Ascultation Assistant Very good site with recorded heart sounds & murmurs...
EKG Library Well-organized archives of many EKG tracings...
Heart News Hot-off-the-presses news on the heart and heart disease...
NOVA Online Companion WebSite for the "Cut to the heart" NOVA television program...
The Heart: An Online Exploration - Informative resource on the cardiovascular system...
Virtual Heart Interactive site with basic heart tutorials (shockwave)...
Mumps, caused by a virus that infects the salivary glands and, in particular, the parotid salivary glands, affects children between the ages of 5 and 9. Initial exposure stimulates antibody production and results in permanent immunity.
In older males, the virus may infect the testes, causing sterility. If the virus infects the pancreas, diabetes can result. Today an effective vaccine (part of an early childhood series) is readily available. Thus, the incidence of mumps in the United States has been greatly reduced.
SMOKING AND THE TRACHEA
Individuals who smoke create a constant irritation to the trachea.
Over time, this irritation from smoke can cause the epithelium of the trachea to change from a pseudostratified, ciliated columnar epithelium to a stratified, squamous epithelium. Without cilia, the epithelium cannot clear the passageway of mucus and debris. This provides an environment ideal for the growth of microorganisms leading to respiratory infections. This constant irritation and respiratory inflammation triggers the cough reflex resulting in what we call a smoker’s cough.
stomach, small intestine
gastric inhibitory peptide
increases production of HCl
stomach, large intestine,
Whooping Cough or pertussis is caused by an infection with the bacterium
Bordetella pertussis. It results in a loss of the cilia of the epithelium that lines the respiratory
tract. Mucus accumulates and severe coughing attempts to expel the material. A childhood vaccine is now availabl to prevent this disease
Pancreatic lipase––degradation of dietary TG in small intestine.
Lipoprotein lipase (LPL)––degradation of TG circulating in chylomicrons and VLDLs.
Hepatic TG lipase (HL)––degradation of TG remaining in IDL.
Hormone-sensitive lipase––degradation of TG stored in adipocytes.
Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT)––catalyzes esterification of cholesterol.
Cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP)––mediates transfer of cholesterol esters to other lipoprotein particles.
Major A-I––Activates LCAT.
apolipoproteins B-100––Binds to LDL receptor, mediates VLDL secretion.
C-II––Cofactor for lipoprotein lipase.
B-48––Mediates chylomicron secretion.
E––Mediates Extra (remnant) uptake.
Ketone bodies Breath smells like acetone
Urine test for ketones does not detect β-hydroxybutyrate
(favored by high redox state).
In liver, fatty acid and amino acids are metabolized to acetoacetate and β-hydroxybutyrate (to be used (fruity odor). in muscle and brain). In prolonged starvation and diabetic ketoacidosis, oxaloacetate is depleted for gluconeogenesis. In alcoholism, excess NADH
shunts oxaloacetate to malate. Both processes stall the TCA cycle, which shunts glucose and FFA to ketone bodies. Excreted in urine. Made from HMG-CoA. Ketone bodies are metabolized by the brain to 2 molecules of acetyl-CoA.
An oocyte is fertilizable for up to 24 hours; sperm are viable
within the female reproductive tract for up to 72 hours. Hundreds of
sperm must release their acrosomal enzymes to break down the egg's corona
Following sperm penetration, the secondary oocyte completes meiosis
II. Then ovum and sperm nuclei fuse (fertilization), forming a zygote
If fertilization occurs, embryonic development begins immediately.
Cleavage, a rapid series of mitotic divisions without intervening growth,
begins with the zygote and ends with a blastocyst.
By day 14 after ovulation, the young embryo (blastocyst) has implanted
in the endometrium, and the placenta is being formed. HCG released by
the blastocyst maintains hormone production of the corpus luteum, preventing
menses, until the placenta assumes its endocrine role.
The placenta serves respiratory, nutritive, and excretory needs
of the embryo and produces hormones of pregnancy.
All major organ systems have been laid down by 8 weeks, and at
9 weeks the embryo is called a fetus. Growth and tissue/organ specialization
are the major events of the fetal period.
A pregnant woman has increased respiratory, circulatory, and urinary
demands placed on her system by the developing uterus. Good nutrition
is necessary to produce a healthy baby.
Childbirth (parturition) includes a series of events called labor.
It is initiated by several factors, but most importantly by rising levels
of oxytocin and prostaglandins, which promote vigorous uterine contractions.
The three stages of labor are dilation, expulsion, placental. reference
THE ANATOMY AND FUNCTIONS OF THE NOSE
1. The openings into the external nose are called the nostrils or external nares.
2. The internal nose connects with the throat or pharynx via the two internal nares.
3. The nose is separated into a right and left nasal cavity by the nasal septum.
4. Coarse hairs line the vestibules of the nostrils to filter out large dust particles in the air.
5. The internal nose has three shelves formed by the turbinate bones: the superior, middle and inferior meatus lined with mucous membranes.
6. The olfactory receptors are found in the superior meatus.
7. The internal nose has three functions: air is warmed, moistened, and filtered; olfactory stimuli are detected; and large hollow resonating chambers are provided for speech sounds.
Sternal notch T2
Bifurcation of trachea T4-T5
Conus medularis L1-L2 adult, L3 newborn
Heart: Base T6-T9
Apex 5th left intercostal space
Cholesterol Rate-limiting step is catalyzed by HMG-CoA synthesis reductase, which converts HMG-CoA to mevalonate. 2⁄3 of plasma cholesterol is esterified by lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT).
Once a month, half the adult population of the world who aren't
pregnant or menopausal lose blood. In ancient times it was noticed that
a woman's monthly flow was the only time along with childbirth that
blood was shed without wounding, and thus it was regarded as special .
The rituals of many traditions from Taoists to the Ancient Egyptians
involved the ingestion of menstrual blood mixed with red wine to
increase spiritual power. In Ancient Greece spring festivals included
the spreading on the earth of corn mixed with menstrual blood to
So great was the belief that the power of creation existed within the blood of a woman that
many myths such as the Ancient Hindu version in which all life is
created from the thickened blood of the Great Mother include reference
to it. [TO KNOW MORE]
The true cost of blood
The true cost of blood transfusion is yet to be determined but we know that it is at least $200 per unit to process. This is gradually increasing as we include more safety tests.
There are several other costs involved in transfusion. These include: transportation, storage, laboratory testing and administering of blood to patients. In addition to this are the ‘unknown’ costs of possible adverse reactions and outcomes associated with transfusion.
IF YOU TALK ABOUT COURAGE HERO, THEN TAKE THE EXAMPLE OF THIS STUDENT CASSEMERE VICTORIA, DESPITE HER ILLNESS AND PAIN, THIS WONDERFUL WOMAN MANAGED TO END WITH AN A, SHE NEVER EVER GAVE UP, AND STILL PURSUING HER DREAM.
SO FOX THAT ARE GIVING UP WITH EASE BECAUSE IT IS HARD, THINK OF HER.